Europäisches Parlament | Straßburg

International Relations Law of the European Union

Vorlesung im Schwerpunktbereich Nr. 7 „Internationales und Europäisches Recht.“

Sommersemester 2017; 2 SWS.

Mittwoch 15.15-16.45, Raum C 336.

Die Vorlesung in englischer Sprache richtet sich an Studierende des Schwerpunktbereichs Nr. 7, Erasmusstudierende sowie Teilnehmer des Masterstudiengangs „Kulturelle Grundlagen Europas“.  Ziel ist die Vermittlung der rechtlichen Grundlagen der EU-Außenpolitik.  Es geht um die rechtlich-institutionelle Infrastruktur ebenso wie die Ausgestaltung einzelner Sachpolitiken.  

Zugleich bezweckt die Vorlesung fachspezifische Erfahrungen mit der englischen Sprache, die grenzüberschreitende Diskussionen prägt.  Im ersten Abschnitt vertieft bzw. vermittelt die Vorlesung bereichsspezifische Grundfragen des Europa- und Völkerrechts.  In Fortführung der Pflichtvorlesungen geht es um Kompetenzen, Institutionen, Rechtsquellen sowie die Rechtswirkungen des Völkerrechts innerhalb der EU-Rechtsordnung.  Es folgt der Blick auf ausgewählte Sachpolitiken unter Einschluss der Außenhandelspolitik sowie der Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik. Diese verdeutlichen die Bandbreite des auswärtigen EU-Handelns, das für die Rechts- und Politikpraxis zunehmende Bedeutung erlangt.  

Zur Vermittlung fachspezifischer Englischkenntnisse beteiligen sich alle Studierenden mit einem max. 8-minütigem Kurzvortrag zu einem selbst gewählten Sachthema.  Der freie mündliche Vortrag trainiert die rhetorischen und sprachlichen Fertigkeiten.  Noten werden nicht vergeben; es geht um die Erfahrungen und das Selbstbewusstsein im Umgang mit englischer Fachsprache.

Course Outline: Download.

Presentations – Rules and Themes: Download.

English Vocabulary: Download.

Power Point Presentation – Introduction/Evolution: Download. 

Presentations – Names: Download.

Weitere Lektüre finden Sie im ILIAS:

Zum ILIAS-Kurs

Course Materials

Legal Texts

Each participant should have a German or English language edition of the EU Treaties and basic public international law instruments. My recommendations are:

Völker- und Europarecht, Hrsg. Rolf Schwartmann, 10. Auflage (C.F. Müller, 2015): 26,99 EUR.

A consolidated English language version of the EU Treaty, the TFEU and the Charter of Fundamental Rights can be found on the Europa website. All legislation may be downloaded electronically from the EUR-Lex-Homepage. The European External Action Service (EEAS) provides the general public with a database of international agreements concluded by the European Union. 

General Articles

Daniel Thym, ‘Foreign Affairs’, in: Armin von Bogdandy/Jürgen Bast (Eds.), Principles of European Constitutional Law, 2nd edn (Hart, 2009), pp. 309–343.

Daniel Thym, ‘Auswärtige Gewalt’, in: Armin von Bogdandy/Jürgen Bast (Hrsg.): Europäisches Verfassungsrecht, 2nd edn (Springer, 2009), pp. 441–488 (= German version).

Marise Cremona, ‘External Relations and External Competence of the European Union’, in: Paul Craig/Gráinne de Búrca (Eds.), The Evolution of EU Law, 2nd edn (OUP, 2011), pp. 217-268.

Textbooks (EU External Relations)

Note: MANY of these textbooks are too specific for the purposes of our course or do not sufficiently cover legal issues. I recommend the materials referred to in the general sections instead.

Panos Koutrakos, EU International Relations Law, 2nd edn (Hart, 2015): 40 £.

Bart Van Vooren/Ramses Wessel, EU External Relations Law. Text, Cases and Materials (CUP, 2014): 40 £.

Pieter Jan Kuijper and others, The Law of EU External Relations. Cases, Materials, and Commentary on the EU as an International Legal Actor, 2nd edition (OUP, 2016): no paperback version available.

Piet Eeckhout, External Relations of the European Union, 2nd edn (OUP, 2011): 39.99 £.

Christopher Hill/Michael Smith (Eds.), International Relations and the European Union, 3rd edn (OUP, 2011): 40.00 £.

Eleftheria Neframi, L’Action extérieure de l'Union européenne. Fondements, moyens, principes (L.G.D.J., 2010): 20,30 €.

Textbooks (General EU Law)

Craig, Paul/de Búrca, Gráinne: EU Law. Text, Cases and Materials, 6. Auflage (OUP, 2015): 42.99 £.

Chalmers, Damian/Davies, Gareth/Monti, Giorgio: European Union Law. Text and Materials, 3. Auflage (CUP, 2014): 42 £.

Lenaerts, Koen/Van Nuffel, Piet: Constitutional Law of the European Union, 3. Auflage (Sweet & Maxwell, 2011): ca. 39,95 £.

Essential Internet Resources

European External Action Service.

Common Commercial Policy.

Neighbourhood Policy & Enlargement; Development.

Auswärtiges Amt; Quai d’Orsay; Foreign & Commonwealth Office

Express and Implied Competences

General Reading

P. Craig/G. de Búrca, EU Law. Text, Cases and Materials (6th edn 2015), § 10.1-3.

D. Thym, ‘Foreign Affairs’, in: Armin von Bogdandy/Jürgen Bast (Eds.), Principles of European Constitutional Law, 2nd edn (Hart, 2009), p. 309 at 316-320. 

M. Cremona, ‘External Relations and External Competence of the European Union’, in: Paul Craig/Gráinne de Búrca (Eds.), The Evolution of EU Law, 2nd edn (OUP, 2011), p. 217 at 219-226 & 245-260: extensive description; participants are NOT expected to know all the details. 

T. Oppermann/C.D. Classen/M. Nettesheim, Europarecht, 7th edn (C.H. Beck, 2016), § 38.

Further Reading

 P. Koutrakos, EU International Relations Law, 2nd edn (Hart, 2015), ch. 3.

Judgments

ECJ, AETR, 22/70, EU:C:1971:32: established the implied powers doctrine (paras 13-32; English abbreviation often ERTA instead of AETR). 

ECJ, ILO-Convention No. 170, Opinion 2/91, EU:C:1993:106: application of the AETR/ERTA formula to minimum harmonisation at European and national level. 

ECJ, Commission vs. Germany (open skies), C-476/98, EU:C:2002:631: illustrates the relevance of the AETR/ERTA doctrine after the adoption of harmonisation measures (here: civil aviation).

ECJ, Lugano Convention, Opinion 1/03, EU:C:2006:81: scope of the AETR/ERTA doctrine in areas with extensive (but not exclusive) EU action; separation clauses in international agreements.

ECJ, Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, Opinion 1/13, EU:C:2014:2303: reiterates the significance of the AETR/ERTA doctrine for multilateral agreements (paras 67-90).

ECJ, Commission vs. Council, C-114/12, EU:C:2014:2151, paras 64 et seq. confirms that Article 3(2) TFEU codifies earlier case law based on the ERTA judgment, including situations in which an area ‘is already largely covered’ by EU rules; in such scenarios, the EU has an exclusive competence without internal and external rules ‘coincid[ing] fully’ (paras 69-70).

Power Point Presentation – Competences: Download.

Institutional Prerogatives & International Agreements

General Reading

T. Oppermann/C.D. Classen/M. Nettesheim, Europarecht, 7th edn (C.H. Beck, 2016), § 38.

P. Craig/G. de Búrca, EU Law. Text, Cases and Materials (6th edn 2015), § 10.6.

D. Thym, ‘Foreign Affairs’, in: Armin von Bogdandy/Jürgen Bast (Eds.), Principles of European Constitutional Law, 2nd edn (Hart, 2009), p. 309 at 323-326.

Further Reading

P. Eeckhout, External Relations of the European Union, 2nd edn (OUP, 2011), pp. 193-211.

M. Krajewski, ‘Binnenorganisationen der EU-Außenpolitik’, in: Andreas von Arnauld (Ed.), Enzyklopädie Europarecht, Vol. X (Nomos, 2014), § 3.

Materials

Consult the Treaties Office Database for an overview of the scope and breadth of bilateral agreements concluded with third states.

European Parliament newsroom about recent developments in the field of external relations.

Judgments

ECJ, France vs. Commission, C-327/91, EU:C:1994:305: admissibility of actions for annulment after the entry into force of international agreements; implied powers concern the scope of EU competence, not institutional prerogatives (which follow Art. 218 TFEU).

ECJ, Commission vs. Ireland (Mox Plant), C-459/03, EU:C:2006:345: exclusive CJEU competence for the interpretation of Union law; Member States are prohibited from bringing such claims to international courts or conflict resolution bodies.

ECJ, Council vs. Commission, C-73/14, EU:C:2015:663 & ECJ, Council vs. Commission, C-660/13, EU:C:2016:616: scope of the executive power of the Commission to represent the EU position independently without prior authorisation by the Council under Art. 16(1)(2), 17(1)(6) TEU: yes for standing in the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea in situations with a pre-defined EU position (C-73/14), no for non-binding political statements with Switzerland concerning ‘essential aspects’ of bilateral relations (C-660/13).

ECJ, European Parliament vs. Council, C-263/14, EU:C:2016:435: the EP has be informed about all stages of the treaty negotiating procedure under Art. 218(10) TFEU, not only the final conclusion of the agreement.

General Court, Efler et al. vs. Commission, T-754/14, EU:T:2017:323: the Commission is obliged to allow the citizens’ initiative ‘Stop TTIP’ to proceed under Art. 11(4) TFEU. 

Power Point Presentation – Institutions: Download. 

Status of International Law

General Reading 

P. Craig/G. de Búrca, EU Law. Text, Cases and Materials (6th edn 2015), § 10.7-9.

M. Cremona, ‘External Relations and External Competence of the European Union’, in: Paul Craig/Gráinne de Búrca (Eds.), The Evolution of EU Law, 2nd edn (OUP, 2011), p. 217 at 232-244.

D. Thym, ‘Foreign Affairs’, in: Armin von Bogdandy/Jürgen Bast (Eds.), Principles of European Constitutional Law, 2nd edn (Hart, 2009), p. 309 at 320-323.

Judgments

ECJ, Kupferberg, 104/81, EU:C:1982:362: direct effect of international agreements in the EU legal order (paras 13-27).

ECJ, Polydor, 270/80, EU:C:1982:43: identical provisions of EU law and international agreements cannot always be interpreted similarly due to the different context (paras 14-22).

ECJ, Racke, C-162/96, EU:C:1998:293: customary international law is binding upon the European Union (paras 37-43).

ECJ, Intertanko, C-308/06, EU:C:2008:312: Compatibility of a directive with UNCLOS and an IMO-Convention (MARPOL)? CJEU fine-tunes its case-law on the status of international agreements in the EU legal order; agreements ratified by all Member States do not automatically bind the EU unless in cases of functional succession or where the agreement in questions reflects customary international law (paras 42 et seq.).

ECJ, Kadi & Al Baraak vs. Council & Commission, C-402/05 & C-415/05 P, EU:C:2008:461: primacy of the EU Treaty over international obligations (here: UNSC Resolutions) within the EU legal order; EU human rights standards supersede the enforcement of UN sanctions (paras 278-330).

ECJ, Commission vs. Austria, C-205/06, EU:C:2009:118: the Commission may initiate infringement proceedings under Art. 258 TFEU, if the Member States remain inactive despite Art. 351(2) TFEU.

ECJ, Walz, C-63/09, EU:C:2010:251: paras 17 et seq. illustrate that the interpretation of international agreements concluded by the EU follows international legal standards, incl. the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.

ECJ, The Air Transport Association of America et al., C-366/10, EU:C:2011:864: Are unilateral European measures extending the CO2 emissions trading scheme to air transport compatible with the EU’s international legal obligations? Excellent case to study the conditions for direct effect (paras 49-56) and the status of international custom (paras 101-110).

ECJ, Z., C-363/12, EU:C:2014:159: United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was ratified by the EU and must be considered when interpreting Union law, but it cannot be relied on to challenge the validity secondary law, since its provisions are not precise and unconditional (paras 84-90). 

Power Point Presentation: Download.

Case Study: EEC – Turkey Association Agreement

General Reading

See the reading list on the status of international law.

Materials

Agreement establishing an Association between the European Economic Community and Turkey of 12 Sept. 1963 (OJ 1977 L 361/29); Additional Protocol of 23 Nov. 1970 (OJ 1977 L 361/60).

EEC-Turkey Association Council Decision No. 1/80 of 19 Sept 1980.

Judgments

ECJ, Sevince, C-192/89, EU:C:1990:322: international secondary law, in casu art. 6 of the Decision of the EEC-Turkey Association Council concerning the legal position of Turkish migrant workers, is directly applicable within the EU legal order (paras 13-26).

ECJ, Bozkurt, C-434/93, EU:C:1995:168: having regard to the objective and wording of the EEC-Turkey association agreement, the interpretation of the Association Council Decision 1/80 shall ‘so far as possible’ follow EU legal principles (paras 18-20).

ECJ, Soysal & Savatli, C-228/06, EU:C:2009:101: directly applicable provisions of international agreements (here: Article 41(1) Additional Protocol 1970 to the EEC-Turkey Association Agreement) have priority over secondary law (here: EU Visa Reg. 539/2001).

ECJ, Hengartner & Gasser, C-70/09, EU:C:2010:430: does the agreement between the EC and Switzerland on the free movement of persons of 21 June 1999 (OJ 2002 L 114/6) cover passive service recipients, e.g. German students buying sky passes or visiting operas (paras 36-42)?

ECJ, Demirkan, C-221/11, EU:C:2013:583: Article 41(1) Additional Protocol 1970 to the EEC-Turkey Association Agreement does not cover service recipients – in contrast to the fundamental freedom within the single market – In the light of divergent objectives (paras 44-61).

ECJ, Dogan, C-138/13, EU:C:2014:2066: Article 13 Association Council Decision No 1/80 and Article 41(1) Additional Protocol, ibid., are to be interpreted in the light of the fundamental freedoms when it comes to the term ‘restriction’; language tests for spouses of Turkish workers can be compatible, therefore, with EU law (paras 33-38).

Power Point Presentation:  See previous section.

Mixed Agreements, Membership in International Organisations

General Reading

P. Eeckhout, External Relations of the European Union, 2nd edn (OUP, 2011), pp. 212-266 (overview).

K. Odendahl, ‘Beziehungen zu Drittstaaten und internationalen Organisationen’, in: Andreas von Arnauld (Ed.), Enzyklopädie Europarecht, Vol. X (Nomos, 2014), § 5 (overview).

Further Reading

D. Thym, ‘Die Europäische Union in den Vereinten Nationen’, Vereinte Nationen 2008, 51–56 (prior to the adoption of the UNGA Resolution on enhanced EU observer status).

Materials

European Union@United Nations.

UN General Assembly: Participation of the European Union in the work of the United Nations, Res. A/65/276 of 10 May 2011.

Judgments

ECJ, European Economic Area I, Opinion 1/91, EU:C:1991:490: constitutional limits for EU participation in international agreements whenever the autonomy of Union law and its institutional system is at stake.

ECJ, Commission vs. Council, C-25/94, EU:C:1996:114: right to vote of the Union and its Member States within mixed agreements.

ECJ, Commission vs. Germany, C-433/03, EU:C:2005:462 : duty of loyal cooperation of the Member States once the Commission has initiates treaty negotiations.

ECJ, Commission vs. Greece, C-45/07, EU:C:2009:81: when international organisations without EU participation (here: IMO) discuss matters of exclusive Union competence the Member States are obliged to act as “trustees” of the EU standpoint (paras 27-31).

ECJ, Unified Patent Litigation System, Opinion 1/09, EU:C:2011:123: do the prerogatives of the CJEU under the Treaty prevent the establishment of international patent litigation in Europe in relation to the future EU Patent (paras 60-76).

ECJ, Germany vs. Council, C-399/12, EU:C:2014:2258: adoption of EU decisions on joint negotiating positions in IOs that are covered by EU competences but to which the EU has not acceded so far can be covered by Art. 218(9) TFEU.

ECJ, Accession to the ECHR, Opinion 2/13, EU:C:2014:2454: the EU cannot accede to the ECHR under the draft accession agreement.

Power Point Presentation: Download.

Common Commercial Policy (incl. EU in the WTO)

General Reading

T. Oppermann/C.D. Classen/M. Nettesheim, Europarecht, 7th edn (C.H. Beck, 2016), § 40.I-III.

M. Cremona, ‘External Relations and External Competence of the European Union’, in: Paul Craig/Gráinne de Búrca (Eds.), The Evolution of EU Law, 2nd edn (OUP, 2011), p. 217 at 226-232 (competence).

P. Eeckhout, External Relations of the European Union, 2nd edn (OUP, 2011), pp. 447-460 (instruments & actors).

S. Meunier/K. Nicolaïdes, The European Union as a Trade Power, in: Christopher Hill/Michael Smith (Eds.), International Relations and the European Union, 2nd edn (OUP, 2011), pp. 275-298.

Further Reading

B. Daiber, ‘Das Freihandelsabkommen zwischen der EU und Südkorea’, Europarecht 2015, 542-574.

C. Herrmann/W. Michl, ‘Grundzüge des europäischen Außenwirtschaftsrechts’, Zeitschrift für Europarechtliche Studien 2008, p. 81 at 93-140.

F. Hoffmeister, ‘Aktuelle Rechtsfragen in der Praxis der europäischen Außenhandelspolitik’, Zeitschrift für Europarechtliche Studien 2013, 385-401.

S. Boysen, ‘Das System des Europäischen Außenwirtschaftsrechts’, in: Andreas von Arnauld (Ed.), Enzyklopädie Europarecht, Vol. X (Nomos, 2014), § 9.

W. Weiß, ‘Vertragliche Handelspolitik der EU’, in: Andreas von Arnauld (Ed.), Enzyklopädie Europarecht, Vol. X (Nomos, 2014), § 10.

P. Koutrakos, EU International Relations Law, 2nd edn (Hart, 2015), chs 2 & 10.

A. Van Waeyenberge/P. Pecho, ‘Free Trade Agreements after the Treaty of Lisbon in the Light of the Case Law of the Court of Justice of the European Union’, ELJ 20 (2014), 749-762.

C. Ohler, ‘Die Vereinbarkeit von Investor-Staat-Schiedsverfahren mit deutschem und europäischem Verfassungsrecht’, Juristenzeitung 2015, 337-345.

A. Dimopoulos, ‘The Involvement of the EU in Investor-State Dispute Settlement: A Question of responsibilities’, CML Rev. 51 (2014), 1671-1720.

Materials

Commission Website with recent developments and background information.

Information on CETA and on TTIP, incl. the EU’s negotiation position.

Regulation (EU) No 952/2013 ... laying down the Union Customs Code (OJ 2013 L 269/1); Regulation (EU) No 978/2012 … applying a Scheme of Generalised Tariff Preferences (OJ 2012 L 303/1); Regulation (EU) 2015/478 … on Common Rules for Imports (OJ 2015 L 83/16); Council Regulation (EC) No 1225/2009 … on protection against dumped imports Union (OJ 2016 L 176/21).

Außenwirtschaftsgesetz (AWG); Außenwirtschaftsverordnung (AWV).

Judgments

Scope of EU Competences

ECJ, International Fruit Company, 21-24/72, EU:C:1972:115: EEC as a member of the GATT 1947 by means of functional succession before the conclusion of the Uruguay round when the EC officially become a state party (WTO Agreement).

ECJ, International Agreement on Natural Rubber, Opinion 1/78, EU:C:1979:224: instrumental view of trade policy (not exclusively aimed at liberalisation).

ECJ, WTO, Opinion 1/94, EU:C:1994:384: CCP as defined by the Rome Treaty covers the GATT – not the GATS and TRIPs which are subject to shared, implied AETR competences by the EC and the Member States and therefore require a mixed agreement (note: CCP was amended by the Treaties of Nice and Lisbon to cover GATS and TRIPs).

ECJ, EU-Singapore FTA, Opinion 2/15, EU:C:2017:376: CCP as defined by the Treaty of Lisbon includes most aspects of trade in goods and services as well as foreign direct investment, but Member States have to participate through a mixed agreement insofar as investment protection beyond the sphere of foreign direct investment and investor-state dispute settlement are concerned (while all other areas can be the subject of an EU only agreement).

Direct Applicability of WTO Law

ECJ, Portugal vs. Council, C-149/96, EU:C:1999:574: WTO law is not directly applicable (paras 25 et seq.).­

ECJ, Léon Van Parys, C-377/02, EU:C:2005:121: Appellate Body decisions within the DSU confirming that the EU have violated WTO law do not change our conclusion that WTO law is, as a matter of principle, not directly effective.

ECJ, FIAMM & FIAMM Technologies, C-120/06 P and 121/06 P, EU:C:2008:476: companies cannot claim non-contractual liability for violations of WTO law by the EU.

National Constitutional Law

BVerfGE 123, 267 (416-420) – Lissabon: scope of the CCP, as amended by the Lisbon Treaty, does not call into question German sovereignty (but should be interpreted narrowly).

Power Point Presentation: Download.

Association & Neighbourhood

General Reading

T. Oppermann/C.D. Classen/M. Nettesheim, Europarecht, 7th edn (C.H. Beck, 2016), § 41.

K. Smith, ‘Enlargement, the Neighbourhood, and European Order’, in: Christopher Hill/Michael Smith (Eds.), International Relations and the European Union, 2nd edn (OUP, 2011), pp. 299-323.

Further Reading

C. Hillion, ‘Mapping-Out the New Contractual Relations between the European Union and Its Neighbours: Learning from the EU–Ukraine Enhanced Agreement’, EFA Rev. 12 (2007), 169–182.

P. Koutrakos, EU International Relations Law, 2nd edn (Hart, 2015), ch. 11.

M. Kotzur, ‘Europäische Nachbarschaftspolitik’, in: Andreas von Arnauld (Ed.), Enzyklopädie Europarecht, Vol. X (Nomos, 2014), § 7.

Materials

Further information on the Barcelona Process: Union for the Mediterranean and the European Neighbourhood Policy: Eastern Partnership.

Power Point Presentation: Download.

Common Foreign, Security & Defence Policy

General Reading

D. Thym, ‘Foreign Affairs’, in: Armin von Bogdandy/Jürgen Bast (Eds.), Principles of European Constitutional Law, 2nd edn (Hart, 2009), p. 309 at 330-338.

T. Oppermann/C.D. Classen/M. Nettesheim, Europarecht, 7th edn (C.H. Beck, 2016), § 39.

J. Howorth, ‘The EU’s Security and Defence Policy: A Strategic Approach’, in: Christopher Hill/Michael Smith (Eds.), International Relations and the European Union, 2nd edn (OUP, 2011), pp. 197-225.

Further Reading

F. Algieri, Die Gemeinsame Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik der EU (UTB, 2010): ab 9.99 €.

P. Koutrakos, EU International Relations Law, 2nd edn (Hart, 2015), ch. 13.

D. Thym, ‘GASP und äußere Sicherheit’, in: Andreas von Arnauld (Ed.), Enzyklopädie Europarecht, Vol. X (Nomos, 2014), § 16.

Materials (CFSP)

European External Action Service.

“Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy”, June 2016.

“A Secure Europe in a Better World – The European Security Strategy”, approved by the European Council on 12 December 2003, Council doc. 15895/03 of 8 Dec 2003.

Materials (CSDP) 

Ongoing and former military and civil CSDP operations.

European Defence Agency.

Auslandseinsätze der Bundeswehr.

Decision of the Heads of State or Government of the 27 Member States of the EU, meeting within the European Council, on the concerns of the Irish people on the Treaty of Lisbon, 18/19 June 2009, Council doc. 11225/2/09 Rev 2: Section C (Security and Defence).

Judgments

ECJ, Commission vs. Council (ECOWAS), C-91/05, EU:C:2008:288: delimitation of the Common Foreign and Security Policy and development cooperation.

BVerfGE 123, 267 – Lissabon: intergovernmental character of the Common Security and Defence Policy as a mandatory requirement of German constitutional law (paras 381-391).

Power Point Presentation: CFSP – Download (forthcoming).

Power Point Presentation: CSDP – Download (forthcoming).